## Chapter 13 – Profit - Loss

## Practice set 31

**1. The cost price and selling price are given in the following table. Find out whether there was a profit or a loss and how much it was.**

**Solution:**

**(i)** Cost price = Rs 4500

Selling price = Rs 5000

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

This is a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 5000 – 4500

∴ Profit = Rs 500

**(ii)** Cost price = Rs 4100

Selling price = Rs 4090

Cost price is greater than the selling price.

This is a loss.

Loss = Cost price – Selling price

∴ Loss = 4100 – 4090

∴ Loss = Rs 10

**(iii)** Cost price = Rs 700

Selling price = Rs 799

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

This is a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 799 – 700

∴ Profit = Rs 99

(iv) Cost price = Rs 1000

Selling price = Rs 920

Cost price is greater than the selling price.

This is a loss.

Loss = Cost price – Selling price

∴ Loss 1000 – 920

∴ Loss = Rs 80

**2. A shopkeeper bought a bicycle for ₹ 3000 and sold the same for ₹ 3400. How much was his profit?**

**Solution:**

Cost price = Rs 3000

Selling price = Rs 3400

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

Shopkeeper earned a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 3400 – 3000

∴ Profit = Rs 400

**Ans:** The shopkeeper’s profit was Rs 400.

**3. Sunandabai bought milk for ₹ 475. She converted it into yoghurt and sold it for ₹ 700. How much profit did she make?**

**Solution:**

Cost price = Rs 475

Selling price = Rs 700

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

Sunandabai occured a profit.

∴ Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 700 – 475

∴ Profit = Rs 225

**Ans:** Sunandabai made a profit of Rs 225.

**4. The Jijamata Women’s Saving Group bought raw materials worth ₹ 15000 for making chakalis. They sold the chakalis for 22050 rupees. How much profit did the WSG make?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of raw materials = Rs 15000

Selling price of chakalis = Rs 22050

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

They earned a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 22050 – 15000

∴ Profit = Rs 7050

**Ans:** The Women’s Saving Group made a profit of Rs 7050.

**5. Pramod bought 100 bunches of methi greens for ₹ 400. In a sudden downpour, 30 of the bunches on his handcart got spoiled. He sold the rest at the rate of ₹ 5 each. Did he make a profit or a loss? How much?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of 100 bunches of methi green = Rs 400

Number of bunches got spoilt = 30

∴ Remaining bunches of methi green

= 100 – 30

= 70

Selling price of 1 bunch of methi green = Rs 5

∴ Selling price of 70 bunches of methi green

= 5 × 70

= Rs 350

Cost price is greater than selling price

∴ Pramod suffered a loss.

Loss = Cost price – Selling price

∴ Loss = 400 – 350

∴ Loss = Rs 50

Ans: Pramod suffered a loss of Rs 50.

**6. Sharad bought one quintal of onions for ₹ 2000. Later he sold them all at the rate of ₹ 18 per kg. Did he make a profit or incur a loss? How much was it?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of one quintal onions = Rs 2000

Selling price of 1 kg onions = Rs 18

1 quintal = 100 kg

∴ Selling price of 1 quintal (100 kg) onions

= 18 × 100

= Rs 1800

Cost price is greater than selling price

∴ Sharad suffered a loss.

Loss = Cost price – Selling price

∴ Loss = Rs 2000 – Rs 1800

∴ Loss = Rs 200

**Ans:** Sharad incurred a loss of Rs 200.

**7. Kantabai bought 25 saris from a wholesale merchant for ₹ 10000 and sold them all at ₹ 460 each. How much profit did Kantabai get in this transaction?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of 25 saris = Rs 10000

Selling price of 1 sari = Rs 460

∴ Selling price of 25 saris

= 460 × 25

= Rs 11500

** **

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

∴ Kantabai made a profit

** **

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 11500 – 10000

∴ Profit = Rs 1500

** **

**Ans:** Kantabai made a profit of Rs 1500.

## Practice set 32

**1. From a wholesaler, Santosh bought 400 eggs for ₹ 1500 and spent ₹ 300 on transport. 50 eggs fell down and broke. He sold the rest at ₹ 5 each. Did he make a profit or a loss? How much?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of 400 eggs = Rs 1500

Transportation cost = Rs 300

∴ Total cost price of 400 eggs

= Cost price of 400 eggs + Transportation cost

= 1500 + 300 = Rs 1800

50 eggs fell and broke

∴ Remaining eggs = 400 – 50 = 350

Selling price of 1 egg = Rs 5

∴ Selling price of 350 eggs

= 5 × 350

= Rs 1750

Total cost price is greater than the selling price.

∴ Santosh suffered a loss.

Loss = Total cost price – Selling price

∴ Loss = 1800 – 1750

∴ Loss = Rs 50

**Ans:** Santosh incurred a loss of Rs 50.

**2. Abraham bought goods worth ₹ 50000 and spent ₹ 7000 on transport and octroi. If he sold the goods for ₹ 65000, did he make a profit or a loss? How much?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of goods = Rs 50000

Transportation cost and octroi = Rs 7000

∴ Total cost price for buying goods

= Cost price of goods + Transportation cost and octroi

= 50000 + 7000

= Rs 57000

Selling price of goods = Rs 65000

Selling price is greater than the total cost price

∴ Abraham made a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Total cost price

∴ Profit = 65000 – 57000

∴ Profit = Rs 8000

**Ans:** Abraham made a profit of Rs 8000.

**3. Ajit Kaur bought a 50 kg sack of sugar for ₹ 1750, but as sugar prices fell she had to sell it at ₹ 32 per kg. How much loss did she incur?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of 50 kg sugar = Rs 1750

Selling price of 1 kg sugar = Rs 32

∴ Selling price of 50 kg sugar

= 50 × 32

= Rs 1600

Cost price is greater than the selling price.

∴ Ajit suffered a loss.

Loss = Total cost price – Selling price

∴ Loss = 1750 – 1600

∴ Loss = Rs 150

**Ans:** Ajit Kaur incurred a loss of Rs 150.

**4. Kusumtai bought 80 cookers at ₹ 700 each. Transport cost her ₹ 1280. If she wants a profit of ₹ 18000, what should be the selling price per cooker?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of one cooker = Rs 700

∴ Cost price of 80 cookers

= 700 × 80

= Rs 56000

Transportation cost = Rs 1280

∴ Total cost price

= Cost price of 80 cookers + Transportation cost

= 56000 + 1280

= Rs 57280

Profit = Rs 18000

Now,

Profit = Selling Price – Cost Price

∴ Selling price = Cost price + Profit

∴ Selling price = 57280 + 18000

∴ Selling price = Rs 75280

∴ Selling price of 80 cookers = Rs 75280

∴ Selling price of 1 cooker = \(\large \frac {75280}{80}\)

∴ Selling price of 1 cooker = Rs 941

**Ans:** The selling price per cooker should be Rs 941.

**5. Indrajit bought 10 refrigerators at ₹ 12000 each and spent ₹ 5000 on transport. For how much should he sell each refrigerator in order to make a profit of ₹ 20000?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of 1 refrigerator = Rs 12000

Cost price of 10 refrigerator

= 10 × 12000

= Rs 120000

Transportation cost = Rs 5000

∴ Total cost price of 10 refrigerators

= Cost price of 10 refrigerators + Transportation cost

= 120000 + 5000

= Rs 125000

Profit = Rs 20000

Now,

Profit = Selling Price – Cost Price

∴ Selling price = Total cost price + Profit

∴ Selling price = 125000 + 20000

∴ Selling price = Rs 145000

∴ Selling price of 10 refrigerators = Rs 145000

∴ Selling price of 1 refrigerator = \(\large \frac {145000}{10}\)

14500010

∴ Selling price of 1 refrigerator = Rs 14500

**Ans:** Indrajit must sell each refrigerator at Rs 14500 to make a profit of Rs 20000.

**6. Lalitabai sowed seeds worth ₹ 13700 in her field. She had to spend ₹ 5300 on fertilizers and spraying pesticides and ₹ 7160 on labour. If, on selling her produce, she earned ₹ 35400 what was her profit or her loss?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of seeds = Rs 13700

Cost of fertilizers and pesticides = Rs 5300

Labour cost = Rs 7160

∴ Total cost price =

Cost price of seeds + Cost of fertilizers and pesticides + Labour cost

= 13700 + 5300 + 7160

= Rs 26160

Selling price = Rs 35400

Selling price is greater than the total cost price.

∴ Lalitabai made a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 35400 – 26160

∴ Profit = Rs 9240

**Ans:** Lalitabai made a profit of Rs 9240.

## Practice set 33

**1. Maganlal bought trousers for ₹ 400 and a shirt for ₹ 200 and sold them for ₹ 448 and ₹ 250 respectively. Which of these transactions was more profitable? **

**Solution:**

Cost price of trousers = Rs 400

Selling price of trousers = Rs 448

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 448 – 400

∴ Profit = Rs 48

Let Maganlal make x % profit on selling trousers

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {48}{400}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {48}{400}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {48\,×\,100}{400}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {48}{4}\)

∴ x = 12%

Cost price of shirt = Rs 200

Selling price of shirt = Rs 250

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 250 – 200

∴ Profit = Rs 50

Let Maganlal make y% profit on selling shirt.

\(\large \frac {y}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {50}{200}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {y}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {50}{200}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ y = \(\large \frac {50\,×\,100}{200}\)

∴ y = \(\large \frac {50}{2}\)

∴ y = 25%

**x% < y%**

**Ans:** The transaction involving selling shirts was more profitable.

**2. Ramrao bought a cupboard for ₹ 4500 and sold it for ₹ 4950. Shumrao bought a sewing machine for ₹ 3500 and sold it for ₹ 3920. Whose transaction was more profitable?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of cupboard = Rs 4500

Selling price of cupboard = Rs 4950

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 4950 – 4500

∴ Profit = Rs 450

Let Ramrao make x% profit on selling cupboard

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {450}{4500}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {450}{4000}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {450\,×\,100}{4500}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {450}{45}\)

∴ x = 10%

Cost price of sewing machine = Rs 3500

Selling price of sewing machine = Rs 3920

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 3920 – 3500

∴ Profit = Rs 420

Shamrao make y% profit on selling sewing machine.

\(\large \frac {y}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {420}{3500}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {y}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {420}{3500}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ y = \(\large \frac {420\,×\,100}{3500}\)

∴ y = \(\large \frac {420}{35}\)

∴ y = 12%

**x% < y%**

**Ans:** Shamrao’s transaction was more profitable.

**3. Hanif bought one box of 50 apples for ₹ 400. He sold all the apples at the rate of ₹ 10 each. Was there a profit or a loss? What was its percentage?**

**Solution:**

Cost price of 50 apples = Rs 400

Selling price of one apple = Rs 10

∴ Selling price of 50 apples

= 10 × 50

= Rs 500

Selling price is greater than the total cost price.

∴ Hanif made a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 500 – 400

∴ Profit = Rs 100

Let Hanif make x% profit on selling apples.

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {100}{400}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {100}{400}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {100\,×\,100}{400}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {10000}{400}\)

∴ x = 25%

**Ans: **Hanif made a profit of 25%.

## Practice set 34

**1. Draw XYZW and name the following.**

**1. Cost price ₹ 1600, selling price ₹ 2800.**

**Solution:**

#### Amaan bought goods worth Rs 1600 and sold them for Rs 2800. What was his profit in percentage?

Cost price = Rs 1600

Selling price = Rs 2800

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 2800 – 1600

∴ Profit = Rs 1200

Let Sanju make a profit of x%.

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {1200}{1600}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {1200}{1600}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {1200\,×\,100}{1600}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {1200}{16}\)

∴ x = 75%

**Ans:** Sanju made a profit of 75%.

**2. Cost price ₹ 2000, selling price ₹ 1900.**

**Solution:**

#### Simran bought books worth Rs 2000 and sold them for Rs 1900. What was her loss in percentage?

Cost price = Rs 2000

Selling price = Rs 1900

Loss = Cost price – Selling price

∴ Loss = 2000 – 1900

∴ Loss = Rs 100

Let Simran incur a loss of x%

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {100}{2000}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {100}{2000}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {10000\,×\,2000}{100}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {10}{2}\)

∴ x = 5%

**Ans**: Simran suffered a loss of 5%.

**3. Cost price of 8 articles is ₹ 1200 each, selling price ₹ 1400 each.**

**Solution:**

#### Pallavi bought 8 tables for Rs 1200 each and sold them for Rs 1400 each. What was the percentage of her profit or loss?

Cost price of 1 table = Rs 1200

∴ Cost price of 8 tables

= 1200 × 8

= Rs 9600

Selling price of 1 table = Rs 1400

∴ Selling price of 8 tables

= 1400 × 8

= Rs 11200

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

∴ Pallavi made a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

∴ Profit = 11200 – 9600

∴ Profit = Rs 1600

Let Pallavi make a profit of x%.

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {1600}{9600}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {1600}{9600}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {1600\,×\,100}{9600}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {1600}{96}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {50}{3}\)

∴ x = 16\(\large \frac {3}{4}\)%

**Ans**: Pallavi made a profit of 16\(\large \frac {3}{4}\)%.

**4. Cost price of 50kg grain ₹ 2000, Selling price ₹ 43 per kg.**

**Solution:**

#### Ramesh bought 50 kg grains for Rs 2000 and sold it at the rate of Rs 43 per kg. Find the percentage of profit or loss.

Cost price of 50 kg grains = Rs 2000

Selling price of 1 kg grains = Rs 43

∴ Selling price of 50 kg grains

= 43 × 50

= Rs 2150

Selling price is greater than the cost price.

∴ Ramesh made a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Cost price

Profit = 2150 – 2000

Profit = Rs 150

Let Ramesh make profit of x.

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {150}{2000}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {150}{2000}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {150\,×\,100}{2000}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {150}{20}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {15}{2}\)

∴ x = 7\(\large \frac {1}{2}\)%

**Ans:** Ramesh made a profit of 7\(\large \frac {1}{2}\) %.

**5. Cost price ₹ 8600, transport charges ₹ 250, porterage ₹ 150, selling price ₹ 10000**

**Solution:**

#### Faruk bought a fridge for Rs 8600. He spent Rs 250 on transport and Rs 150 on portage. If he sold the fridge for Rs 10,000, what was his percent profit or loss?

Total cost price of a fridge

= Cost of fridge + Transportation cost + Portage

= 8600 + 250 + 150

= Rs 9000

Selling price = Rs 10,000

Selling price is greater than the total cost price.

∴ Faruk made a profit.

Profit = Selling price – Total cost price

∴ Profit = 10000 – 9000

∴ Profit = Rs 1000

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {1000}{9000}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {1000}{9000}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {1000\,×\,100}{9000}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {1000}{90}\)

∴ x = 11\(\large \frac {1}{9}\)%

**Ans**: Faruk made a profit of 11\(\large \frac {1}{9}\)%

**6. Seeds worth ₹ 20500, labour ₹ 9700, chemicals and fertilizers ₹ 5600, selling price ₹ 28640.**

**Solution:**

#### Ramchandra bought sunflower seeds worth Rs 20500. He spent Rs 9700 on labour and Rs 5600 on chemicals and fertilizers. He sold it for Rs 28640. What is the percentage of profit or loss?

Total cost price

= Cost of seeds + Labour cost + Cost of chemicals and Fertilizers

= 20500 + 9700 + 5600

= Rs 35800

Selling price = Rs 28,640

The total cost price is greater than the selling price.

∴ Ramchandra suffered a loss.

Loss = Total cost price – Selling price

Loss = 35800 – 28640

Loss = Rs 7160

Let Ramchandra incur a loss of x%.

\(\large \frac {x}{100}\) = \(\large \frac {7160}{35800}\)

∴ \(\large \frac {x}{100}\) × 100 = \(\large \frac {7160}{35800}\) × 100 …(Multiplying both sides by 100)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {7160\,×\,100}{35800}\)

∴ x = \(\large \frac {7160}{358}\)

∴ x = 20 %

**Ans**: Ramchandra incurred a loss of 20%.